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  • Tension: Muscular contraction

  • Vascular: Migraine and cluster headaches

  • Cervicogenic: Referred from the neck

  • Pressure/ Inflammatory: Tumour, infection

  • Cranial Neuralgia: TMJ joint or muscle pain trigeminal neuralgia

  • Eyestrain, sinus problems and dehydration can also cause headaches.


Cervicogenic headaches are usually one sided and referred to the head from soft tissues and joints of the neck.  Contracted muscles can refer pain into the head from the suboccipital region.

Tension headaches usually cause pain at the base of the skull which can radiate into the forehead and temple. Pain can be referred from trigger points in the scalene muscles, trapezius, suboccipital and other muscles in the neck and shoulders.

Both types of headaches are often associated with poor posture involving rounded shoulders and a head forward posture which is often related to prolonged periods of time spent sitting at desks and computers. Stress is also a contributing factor, as muscle tension increases when the nervous system is overloaded

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